Basti Karma discourse in Osaka
By Dr.Bheema Bhat, M.D. (Ayurveda)
Ayurvedic medicated enema therapy
By Dr.Bheema Bhat, M.D. (Ayurveda)
Senior Ayurvedic Consultant & Head,
Department of Ayurveda,
Holy Family Hospital, New Delhi -110 025.
Phone : 001-91-11-2684 9231 (Res.) 2684 5900 (Hosp.)
Ayurveda is the science of life which deals with body, mind and soul.It is the ancient Indian traditional holistic medical science and aims at maintenance and promotion of health, prevention and cure of diseases.Its origin goes back
to Vedas and it is believed that Ayurveda is the sub-branch of Atharva Veda and this science was very highly developed knowledge of health and healing at that time. Due to various reasons this science suffered in its development and practice
in between but now-a- days Ayurveda is regaining its popularity as a better and safe medical science all over the world.
It is mainly because of its good principles of health and healing. In the near future Ayurveda may be one of the major medical sciences.It is wise to accept all good principles from every system of medicine and make a Universally acceptable healthy integrated system for the benefit of the mankind. Ayurveda is based upon Panchmahabhuta and Tridosha theory.
Health has been defined in Ayurveda as a total physical, psychological, spiritual and social well being.It has dealt in detail about how to preserve and enhance quality of health and prevent diseases by means of Swasthavritta which explains daily regimen, seasonal regimen and ethical regimen.
The knowledge of constituion (physical and mental personality) has been given utmost importance in health as well as disease.Tridoshas-Vata, Pitta and Kapha,the biological humors maintain health in their equilibriumand cause disease in their imbalancedcondition. They keep on changing in their quality and quantity due to environmental factors, food, age, day-night, season, constitution, strength of the body and mind, etc. If the Doshas are aggravated beyond the physiological levels then due to pathological state diseases develop.
All diseases are mainly classified under 2 types viz. Shririka (physical) and Manasika (mental).Physical diseases are due imbalance of Vata,Pitta and Kapha Doshas, and menatal diseases are due imbalance condition of Rajasik and Tamasika Doshas of mind.
3 types viz.,Daiva vyapashraya (religious and devine therapy)
Yukti vyapashraya ( theory based on reasoning)
Satwavajaya (psychic therapy)
2 types viz.,Preventive measure (by healthy lifestyle)
Curative (by actual treatment with medicines)
Curative measure may be further classified into
-Antah parimarjana (Internal medicine)
-Bahi parimarjana ( External use of medicine)
-Shastra pranidhana (surgical procedure)
-Curative measure may be again of two types viz.,
I.Nourishing (Santarpana) and Deplition (Apatarpana).
II. Purificatory (Samshodhana) and palliative(Samshamana)
・ Samshodhana therapy
Human body is made up of innumerable channels and any alteration in the functions ofthese passages or
obstruction will lead to the maltransportation of metabolites to different parts when required for nutrition or excretion. This disturbance thus ultimately leads to the genesis of disease. Samshodhana therapy helps to clean the channels and to rejuvenate them for ensuring a proper transportation of mebtabolites. Samshodhana aims at recouping the harmony of
diseased passages and retaining the harmony in normal states.
Samshodhana consists of a number of physico-physiological measures and Panchakarma is a classically formulated
Ayurvedais the only system of medicine in the world which proposes the need of undertaking the purification of biological system from gross channels aiming to clean the entire organism to render it suitable for self recovery and therapeutic responsiveness.It is believed that once when the diseases are treated by Samshodhan or panchakarma, the chances
of recurance may be nil or negligible. Hence great importance has been given for Panchakarma.
・ Panchakarma therapy
Panchakarma therapy (bio-purification) is one of the great specialities in Ayurveda.
The following are Panchakarma procedures :
1.Vamana Karma (emesis or vomiting)
2.Virechana Karma (Purgation)
3.Anuvasana Basti (medicated oil base enemata)
4.Nirhuha Basti (medicated decoction-oil base enemata)
5.Nasya Karma (errhine therapy)
Object of Panchkarma Therapy
*Maintenance and promotion of health and prevention of Diseases in healthy individual
*Treatment of diseases
*Preparation for Rejuvenation and virilification therapy
Panchakarma procedure is of 3 steps :
1.Purva Karmawhich includesa) Snehana (internal and
External oleation) andb) Svedana (all kinds of sudation/heat Treatment).
2.Pradhana Karma (Vamana, virechana, Anuvasana
Basti, Niruha Basti and Nasya Karma)
3.Paschat Karma (post operative treatment which Includes samsarjana krama)
Ayurveda recommends Basti (medicated enemata) for aggravated Vata, Virechana (purgation) for Pitta and Vamana (emesis) for Kapha Dosha.
・ BASTI KARMA
In this procedure medicated oils and decoctions are introduced into the large intestine with the help of enema bag.Medicines administered by enema for desired effect is known as Basti Karma/therapy. According Ayurveda,Vata Dosha is the main morbid factor in the causation of diseases pertaining to tissues and organs of the body. Since Vata is also the physiological force behind the functions of elimination or retension of faeces, urine, bile, wind, semen, menstrual blood,
Basti is the main therapy of excessive excited Vata. Therefore Basti Karma is considered half the treatment of all the diseases described in Ayurveda. This therapy is also useful as a health promoting measure. It helps in rejuvenation and it provides happiness, long life, strength, intelligence, clear voice and lustre to healthy person. It is beneficial for the old as well as for the young and there are no notable hazards in this therapy. It cures all kinds of diseases due to the varied Pharmacodynamics as various kinds of drugs medicaments used in its preparations.In Basti Karma the medicines are introduced into large intestine or vagina or urinary bladder.
・ Classification of Basti ;
1.According to the site : 4 types
2.According to the substance used :2 types
Niruha Basti (medicated decoctionand oil base)
Anuvasana Basti(maily oil base)
3.According to therapeutic action :many types
4.According to the course of treatment: 3 types
Yoga Basti(5Anuvasana Basti + 3 Niruha Basti)
Kala Basti (10 Anuvasana Basti + 6 Niruha Basti)
Karma Basti (18Anuvasana Basti + 12 Niruha)
・ Indication of Niruha Basti :
Indication of Niruha Basti :
All vata diseases, Diseases of joints, nervous system- Hemiplegia, paraplegia;parkinsonism, chronic constipation, pain in the body, etc.
Contra-indication of Niruha Basti :
Indigestion, obstruction or perforation of intestine, very old or debilitated person, diarrhoea, vomiting, after taking food, persons suffering from tuberculosis, ascitis, peritonitis, asthma.
Indication of Auvasana Basti:
Those who are fit to undergo Niruha Basti, wasting and debilitated diseases, dryness or roughness of skin.
Contra-indication of Anuvasana Basti :
Those who are contra-indicated for Niruha Basti except after taking food, persons suffering from anemia, jaundice, obesity, hemorrhoids, intestinal parasites, kapha diseases.
Indication of Uttara Basti:
Urinary prolapse, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, urinary obstruction, habitual abortion and infertility.
・ Procedure of Basti:
External oil massage
Preparation of Basti medicaments for Anuvasana/Niruha. In Anuasana Basti mediated oil 60 ml. + rock salt 2 gm +
Shatapushpa powder 5 gm.
Enema syringe may be used to give Anuvasana Basti.For Niruha Basti honey, rock salt, medicated oil according to the prakriti/disease, paste prepared from medicines and medicated decoction. 0.8 to1.0 litre may beprepared in a methodical way.Enema set may be used to give Niruha Basti. For Uttara Basti medicated oil and decoction may be used. The medicaments are introduced into vagina/ urinary bladder through catheter as per the suitable size. Detail descriptions are available in Ayurvedic texts regarding the Basti netra (nozzle), Basti putaka (bladder/can), quantity of medicines used, indications contra-indcation of Basti karma, procedure ofBasti Karma, complications, signs and symptoms of Basti Karma etc.
Induction of Basti substance in left lateral position
Observation: In Niruha Basti the content should come out within 48 min.
・ Signs and Symptoms of proper administration of Basti:
Stool and urine move out without any obstruction
Vata, Pitta and Kapha move out gradually
Feels lightness in the body Appetite, digestion and metabolism improves
Symptoms of the diseases reduce
Feeling of well being and increase in general health.
Ayoga and Atiyoga complications, if any, are to be treated accordingly.
Hence, Basti Karma is a very important and essential Panchakarma procedure in Ayurveda which is beneficial for maintenance and promotion of health, prevention of diseases and management of various vata diseases.